The publication ethics which all authors need to be aware of:
- The manuscript presents complete and original information as well as objective data.
- Quotation source and reference cited in the manuscript must be informed.
- The manuscript is written concisely and clearly for efficiency.
- The manuscript is, at the same time, not being sent to and has never been published in another journal.
- All persons who have a reasonable claim to authorship must be named in the manuscript as co-authors; the corresponding author must be authorized by all co-authors to act as an agent on their behalf in all matters pertaining to the publication of the manuscript, and the order of names should be agreed by all authors.
- Everyone involved in the research (students, supervisors, or colleagues) should be included as co- writers.
- A writer who already passed away should be included as a co-author.
- Authors must avoid fabrication (make up the data and results of a study).
- Authors must avoidfalsification (manipulating research materials, equipment, processes, changing the data or intentionally discarding data or results).
- Authors should avoid Plagiarism (taking ideas, processes, results or words without citing the sources).
- Authors should avoid Fragmentation (breaking research data into different themes of manuscript so that the discussion cannot become in-depth)
- The manuscript should not use copied materials from another article without permission.
- All materials/quotation earned from previous research, involving similar writers related to previous publications must be cited properly.
- For all manuscripts non-discriminatory language is mandatory. Sexist or racist terms must not be used.
- When using a word which is or is asserted to be a proprietary term or trademark, authors must use the symbol ® or ™.
- Authors may embed equations or image files within their manuscript as long as it is original and easily managed.
The publication ethics which all editors need to be aware of:
- An editor at any time evaluates manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.
- The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.
- Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor's own research without the express written consent of the author.
- The editorial board of the journal is responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers must always drive such decisions. The editors may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editors may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.
- The editor must ensure that each manuscript is initially evaluated by the editor for originality. The editor should organize and use peer review fairly and wisely. Editors should explain their peer review processes in the information for authors and also indicate which parts of the journal are peer-reviewed. The editor should use appropriate peer reviewers for papers that are considered for publication by selecting people with sufficient expertise and avoiding those with conflicts of interest.
The publication ethics which all reviewers need to be aware of:
- Peer review process assists the editor in making editorial decisions, and through the editorial communications with the author, reviewers may also assist the author in improving the paper.
- Any selected referee/reviewer who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself/herself from the review process.
- Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.
- Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.
- Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.
- Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.